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FAQ :OSD DRIVE INSTRUCTION
01. How to upgrade firmware in DOS & Windows mode ?  
02. How to check if the OSD drive is well connected and works properly?  
03. How do you change the OSD drive letters in Windows 98 if you're not able to use the "/L:(n)" switch in the (autoexec.bat) DOS file?  
04. What are PIO and DMA modes?  
05. What are the standard specification books for discs of different formats?  
06. How do I enable "DMA" mode of CD-ROM (DVD-ROM or CD-RW) in Windows?  
07. There is no sound from the OSD drive after putting an audio CD in.  
08. What are the CD and DVD basic specifications?  
09. What is the capacity of the different discs?  
10. What's the transfer rate for Audio and Data discs?  
11. What are the VCD and DVD Video basic specifications?  
12. What is the Blue-Ray Disc?  
13. Are BTC drives certified by WHQL (Windows Hardware Quality Labs)?  
   
1. How to upgrade firmware in DOS & Windows mode ?

A. Flash firmware for DOS mode : (IDE interface only)

  1. Build a boot disk (floppy) on Windows 98.  
  2. Unzip the firmware to the other one floppy disk.  
  3. Boot to DOS mode, and change the firmware disc.  
  4. If connect the drive to Secondary IDE Channel / Master. Please type "A:> FL 3".  
  5. If connect the drive to Secondary IDE Channel / Slave. Please type "A:> FL 4".  
  6. When it flashes to 100%, then finish. And restart computer.  
* Warning! Flash program can!|t use on DOS mode of Windows!
 
B. Flash firmware for Windows mode:
  1. Please download the appropriate driver file you need.  
  2. Run the flash program under Windows.  
  3. Click on the !uUpgrade!vbutton under the flash program  
  4. !uStatus Upgrading!vis starting to flash the F/W  
  5. After flashing, the system will appear !uComplete!IPlease restart your computer!v, then, restart your computer to finish the flash procedure.  
Note:
  1. BTC do not recommend you to upgrade your F/W, if the drive is working properly and does not encounter any irreclaimable problem issues.  
  2. BTC is not responsible for any defective reasons if the upgrading process caused the issue.  
   
2. How to check if the OSD drive is well connected and works properly?
You can simply do the following to diagnose. (Please use original discs for checkup.)
  1. BIOS detection
  • If the BIOS can detect the drive, that means all settings are OK (jumper, data cable and DC power).

  • either the drive is defective or the settings are wrong.
  2. Tray Eject/Close
  • If the tray works fine, your drive is powered
  • If not, either the drive is defective or the DC power has problems.
  3. Play audio CD by pressing the PLAY button on the front panel with headphone plugged in the headphone jack.
  • If you hear music, it means the circuit of your drive is OK.

  • If not, the drive may be defective.
   
3. How do you change the OSD drive letters in Windows 98 if you're not able to use the "/L:(n)" switch in the (autoexec.bat) DOS file?
In Windows 98, go to "Start / Settings / Control Panel / System Properties / Device Manager / CDROM / Model / Settings / Reserved Drive Letters / Start Drive Letter->select which drive letter you want". If this method can't change the letters, you could:
  1. Check your boot files (config.sys & autoexec.bat) and change the auxiliary file name (config.aaa & autoexec.aaa). Then boot into Windows 98 and see.
  2. Your OS might be damaged for unknown reasons so that your OS could not change your drive letter. In this case, reinstall your OS.
   
4. What are PIO and DMA modes?
PIO (Programmed I/O): CPU controls all action of data transfer I/O. (Occupancy & Increase CPU loading) DMA (Direct Memory Access): Use Main Memory controls the action of data transfer I/O. (Decrease CPU loading)
 
Mode Cycle Time
(nanoseconds)
Max Data Transfer Rate Standard
PIO Mode 0
600 ns
3.33 MB/sec ATA
PIO Mode 1
383 ns
5.22 MB/sec ATA
PIO Mode 2
240 ns
8.33 MB/sec ATA
PIO Mode 3
180 ns
11.1 MB/sec ATA 2
PIO Mode 4
120 ns
16.7 MB/sec ATA 3
DMA, Single Word, Mode 0
960 ns
2.11 MB/sec ATA
DMA, Single Word, Mode 1
480 ns
4.22 MB/sec ATA
DMA, Single Word, Mode 2
240 ns
8.33 MB/sec ATA
DMA, Multiple Word, Mode 0
480 ns
4.17 MB/sec ATA
DMA, Multiple Word, Mode 1
150 ns
13.3 MB/sec ATA 2
DMA, Multiple Word, Mode 2
120 ns
16.7 MB/sec ATA 3
Ultra DMA Mode 0
235 ns
16.7 MB/sec ATA 4
Ultra DMA Mode 1
160 ns
25 MB/sec ATA 4
Ultra DMA Mode 2
120 ns
33.3 MB/sec ATA 4, Ultra ATA
Ultra DMA Mode 3
90 ns
44.4 MB/sec ATA 5
Ultra DMA Mode 4
60 ns
66.6 MB/sec ATA 5, Ultra ATA/66
Ultra DMA Mode 5
40 ns
100 MB/sec Ultra ATA/100
   
5. What are the standard specification books for discs of different formats?
Book Statement
Red Book
CD-DA (Digital Audio)
Yellow Book
CD-ROM (Mode 1, Mode 2)
Green Book
CD-I (Compact Disc Interactive)
Orange Book
CD-Recordable, CD-MO (Part I), CD-R (Part II), CD-RW (Part III)
White Book
Video CD
Blue Book
Enhanced CD (Follow the Red and Yellow book)
   
6. How do I enable "DMA" mode of CD-ROM (DVD-ROM or CD-RW) in Windows?
DMA (Direct Memory Access): Use Main Memory to control the action of data Input/Output transfer. (To decrease CPU loading)
 
  • In Windows 98/ME: Go to "Start / Settings / Control Panel / System / Device Manager / CD-ROM / Settings / DMA".

  • In Windows 2000/XP: Go to "Start / Settings / Control Panel / System / Device Manager / IDE ATA-ATAPI Controllers / Primary or Secondary IDE Channel / Advanced Settings / Transfer Mode / DMA if available".
   
7. There is no sound from the OSD drive after putting an audio CD in.
Not sure what we are traying to say here. Need to clarify more be sure to connect a two-headed cable with one end plugged in ANALOG AUDIO at the rear panel of the drive and the other end plugged on Mother Board. Then CD-ROM drives can play audio CDs directly.
   
8. What are the CD and DVD basic specifications?
  CD DVD
Diameter
120mm
120mm
Depth
1.2mm
1.2mm
Structure (piece)
One piece
Two (0.6mm)
Laser Wavelength
780nm (Red-Laser)
650/ 630nm (Red-Laser)
Track Pitch
1.6mm
0.74mm
Mini-Pit/Land Length
0.83mm
0.4mm
Read Light-spot
0.85 m (FWHM) 0.55 m (FWHM)
Data Layer
1 Layer 1 or 2 (Layers)
Data Size
650MB 4.7GB(SS/SL)
8.5GB(SS/DL)
9.4GB(DS/SL)
17GB(DS/DL)
   
9. What is the capacity of the different discs?
CD-ROM Mode-1 (Data):
 
  • 74(min) * 60(sec) * 75(sector) * = 333000 (sectors) * 2048 (bytes) = 681984000 (bytes) = 650MB (1MB=1024 bytes)
  •  
  • Some CD manufacturers define: 681984000(bytes) = 680MB (1MB=1000 bytes)
  •  
  CD-ROM Mode-2 (Data):
 
  • 74(min) * 60(sec) * 75(sector) * = 333000 (sectors) * 2336 (bytes) = 777888000 (bytes)
  • CD-DA (Audio):
  • 74(min) * 60(sec) * 75(sector) * = 333000 (sectors) * 2352 (bytes) = 783216000 (bytes)
  •  
   
10. What's the transfer rate for Audio and Data discs?
Audio:
 
  • 1 block ¡÷ 2352 bytes
  • CD 1x speed ¡÷ 75 blocks per-second ¡÷ (75*2352)/1024 ¡÷ 172 kb/sec
  Data:
 
  • 1 block ¡÷ 2048 bytes
  •  
  • CD 1x speed¡÷75 blocks per-second ¡÷ (75*2048)/1024 ¡÷ 150 kb/sec
  •  
   
11. What are the VCD and DVD Video basic specifications?
  VCD DVD-Video
Video Data Rate
1.44 Mega Bytes/Sec (Video, sound effect)
1~10 Mega Bytes/Sec (Video, sound effect and subtitles)
Data Compress Technique
MPEG1
MPEG2
Audio Tracks
2 Voice Channel
Use 5.1Voice Channel(Equals to 6 Voice Channel)
Subtitles
Just Provide One Subtitle(can choose Display or Hide)
Provide Maximum 32 kinds of Language Subtitles
   
12. What is the Blue-Ray Disc?
It's a new technology for recording (burning) DVD discs, established and announced by Hitachi, Panasonic, Pioneer, Sharp, SONY, LG, Samsung, Philips, and Thomson MultiMedia.
  Specifications:
 
  • Data capacity: 23.3 / 25 / 27 GB
 
  • Wave length: 405nm
 
  • NA: 0.85
 
  • Data transfer rate: 36 Mbps
 
  • Disc diameter: 12cm
 
  • Disc thickness: 1.2mm (protection layer thickness: 0.1 mm)
 
  • Track pitch: 0.32 £gm
 
  • Storage density: 16.8 / 18.0 / 19.5 Gbit/inch2
 
  • Video: MPEG2 Video
 
  • Audio: AC3, MPEG1 Layer2
 
  • Cassette size: 129 ¡Ñ 131 ¡Ñ 7 m
 
¡@ Blue-Ray Disc CD-ROM DVD-ROM
Disc Diameter
120nm
120nm
120nm
Wave Length
405nm
770
635
Track Pitch
0.32£gm
1.6£gm
0.8£gm
User Data Capacity
23.3GB/25GB/27GB
650MB
4.7GB
   
13. Are BTC drives certified by WHQL (Windows Hardware Quality Labs)?
Many of BTC drives have been certified by WHQL. Check out the Microsoft Hardware List (HCL) web page http://www.microsoft.com/hcl/default.asp for details. Simply select the product type to find out the information.
 
 
Terminology:
  CAV:
CAV is the abbreviation of Constant Angular Velocity. The spindle motor keeps running with the same speed while the CD-ROM drive is accessing data no matter at the inner tracks or the outer tracks. Under this condition, the CD-ROM drive will achieve lower data transfer rate at inner tracks and higher transfer rate at outer tracks. As the statement of CLV, it is getting more and more difficult to overcome technical issue when the transfer rate of CD-ROM drive is getting higher and higher.

CLV:
CLV is the abbreviation of Constant Linear Velocity. For achieving the same transfer rate of CD-ROM disc from inner ring to outer ring, the most common way is to increase spindle motor speed at inner ring but decrease spindle motor speed at outer ring.

DTR:
DTR is the abbreviation of Data Transfer Rate. The CD-ROM drive's DTR, also referred to as its throughputs, tells you how fast it can read data from a disc. CD-ROM drives achieve faster transfer rates simply by spinning a CD-ROM disc at multiple times the speed of the original "single speed", said 150 KB/S standard.

Access Time:
In a CD-ROM drive, the time interval between the instant at which an instruction control unit initiates a call for data and the instant at which delivery of the data is completed.

MTBF:
MTBF is the abbreviation of Mean Time Between Failures. Basically, it boils down to the length of time you can expect your drive to work, under normal operating conditions, before a failure occurs that requires the drive to be repaired.

UDF & UDF Reader:
The Universal Disc Format commonly abbreviated to UDF. It allows you to write data to a CD-R/CD-RW incrementally by using a technique called packet writing. With the technique files can be erased randomly.
A UDF reader enables Multi-Read CD-ROM drives to read UDF formatted CD-R/CD-RW media.
Please click here for more information and get a free copy of UDF Reader.

ISO9660:
ISO 9660 is a multi-platform CD standard that operates with both IBM and Macintosh compatible computer systems. Multiple operating systems such as DOS, Windows 95, Windows NT and UNIX also support the ISO 9660 standard. Level I ISO-9660 is similar to an MS-DOS file system. Filenames are limited to eight single-case characters, a dot, and a three-character extension. Filenames cannot contain special characters, (no hyphens, tildes, equals, or pluses). Only single case letters, numbers, and underscores are accepted. Directory names cannot have the three-digit extension, just eight single-case characters. All alphabets are in UPPER case; some software maps this to lower case. Either the file name or the extension may be empty, but not both ("F." and ".E" are both legal file names). There is a "File Version Number" which can range form 1-32767, and is separated from the extension by a semi-colon. The file version number is ignored on many systems. Subdirectories are allowed to nest up to eight levels deep. Level II ISO-9660 allows longer filenames, up to 32 characters. But many of the other restrictions still apply. Level two discs are not usable on some systems, particularly MS-DOS.

Multi-Read:
The Multi-Read function means the CD-ROM Driver can read not only the existing CD title and CD-R but also recorded CD-RW. In comparison with the normal CD-ROM disc, the reflection rate of CD-RW media is lower. Well, it is quite difficult for those CD-ROM drives without "Multi-Read" function to read this kind of media. Moreover, multi-read CD-ROM drive also support a new file format called UDF which allows you to append data into disc without session limitation.

Multi-Session:
A multi-session drive is one that knows to look for multiple index areas. For example, if you wrote 50MB data to a blank disc at the first time, which called a session or 1ST session. That means there are around 600 MB free space available on that disc and you can continue to add more data to it any time until it is full, thus makes the disc contains not only a session. But, unfortunately, there is a limitation on a CD-R disc with 99 recordable times as well as 99 sessions maximum. Full details are contained in the Philips / Sony / Kodak "Orange Book" standard for writable CDs.


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